文化研究國際中心

回顧|第三世界當代思想系列演講I:Aaron Kamugisha

  • 2016-04-21
  • 林 郁曄

回顧|第三世界當代思想系列演講I:Aaron Kamugisha
Contemporary Third World Thought Lecture Series I: Aaron Kamugisha was held.


加勒比海的反殖民思想
Caribbean Anti-colonial thought: Jean Jacques Dessalines, Aimé Césaire, Frantz Fanon, George Beckford
Aaron Kamugisha (University of West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados)
March 15, 2016 14:00-17:00

做為本次系列演講的第一場,Kamugisha教授首先簡述他個人的知識軌跡,講述他如何發現知識上的去殖民是所有加勒比海知識份子面對的重要議題,而要開始這麼做,就必須從挖掘在地思想資源開始。這也是為何他會以這次的題目展開系列演講。

如同演講標題所示,他首先以第一篇文本,由1805年海地反殖民革命時期關鍵人物之一的Jean Jacques Dessalines所寫的〈不解放吾寧死,眾呼〉(Liberty or Death, Proclamation)說明海地革命的重要意義在於這不是一場中產階級革命,而是代表著一段「不可想像」的歷史的革命,意思是,在這個曾經是世上最獲利豐厚的殖民地上被奴役的人民們,起來成功反抗當時世界上最強大的殖民勢力。在這篇文章中, Dessalines描述了受奴役者的悲慘狀況,並呼籲要終結奴隸制度,這點在革命成功之後訂立的海地憲法中得到實現。

在歷史再往後推移,下一個時期殖民地的知識份子則面臨Aimé Césaire所寫的〈殖民主義探討〉(Discourse on Colonialism)這篇文章中需要思考的議題。在這篇文章中,Aimé Césaire對殖民主義的形成與特質都提出非常具有開創性的見解,他精闢分析殖民與文明這兩個概念之間的關係、殖民主義與法西斯主義之間的關係,以及殖民主義的神話等,這些都對後來的知識份子產生許多啟發,包括第三篇文本的作者,也就是Franz Fanon。

Kamugisha教授把〈種族主義與文化〉(Racism and Culture)這篇文章放回Fanon的知識脈絡,認為它是標示著從《白皮膚,黑面具》(1952)到《大地上的受苦者》(1961)之間重要轉折的作品,他重點提出文章中的關鍵論點,包括種族主義論述如何從生物上的轉到文化上的,如何透過文化來運作與強化,以及對納粹與殖民的記憶如何「深深改動了這個問題以及探討它的方式。Fanon也精確描繪了種族之間的動態心理張力以及他的核心關切,也就是種族主義和壓迫之間的關係。在第四篇文章〈墾殖莊園社會:加勒比海社會理論初探〉(Plantation Society: Toward a General Theory of Caribbean Society)中,作者George Beckford致力於透過被殖民經驗來描繪加勒比海社會的關鍵特質。透過主張「傳統墾殖莊園是一種徹底的經濟建制」同時也是「徹底的社會建制」,Beckford對於墾殖莊園的形成、發展、運作等種種面向提出詳細說明。儘管他的有些論點仍有爭議性,但墾殖莊園仍是一個能讓我們捕捉殖民對加勒比海社會的影響與效應的有效出發點,未來能夠對這個地區做出更具深度的分析。
 

As the first lecture of three, Dr. Kamugisha first took us through his intellectual trajectory, about how he had found the issue of intellectual decolonization an important task confronting Caribbean scholars, and to do that, one must first goes back to intellectual resources born in the Caribbean area, which lead to the lecture this time.

As indicated by the title, he first introduce the article “Liberty or Death, Proclamation” by Jean Jacques Dessalines, a key figure in the 1805 Haiti revolution against colonialism. The revolution is not a bourgeoisie revolution, but the one representing an “unthinkable” history, that is, slaved people on the once most prosperous colony defeated the strongest forces/colonizers in the world at that time. Dessalines in the article depicted the dire situation of slavery, and call for a termination and liberation of all slaves – a task realized in the Haiti Constitution.

After the preliminary task was done, there comes the second text “Discourse on Colonialism” by Aimé Césaire, in which he made ground-breaking observation on the features and characteristics of colonialism. His acute analysis of the notion of colonialization and civilization, the relation between colonialism and fascism, as well as the myth of colonialization have been inspiring for many of the thinkers, including Franz Fanon, his student and the author of the next text “Racism and Culture.”

By situation this essay as the transforming conjuncture for Fanon between Black Skin, White Masks (1952) and The Wretched of the Earth (1961), Dr. Kamugisha highlighted Fanon’s key arguments in the essay, including how racism has moved from a biological racism to a cultural one, and is culturally functioned and enforced, and how the memory of Nazism and colonization has “deeply modified the problem and the manner of approaching it.” Fanon depicted the psycho-dynamic of the race, and his key concern about the relation between racism and oppression. In the fourth text, “Plantation Society: Toward a General Theory of Caribbean Society,” George Beckford endeavor to delineate the key features of Caribbean society through the experience of being colonized. By stating that “the traditional plantation is a total economic institution,” as well as “a total social institution,” Beckford provided detailed analysis of the formation, development, function and so on of the plantation as an institution. Albeit some of his arguments remain controversial, the issue of plantation indeed provide a solid point of departure to grasp the impact and effect of colonization on Caribbean society for more in-depth analysis of this area.


(來源出處:亞際書院,Inter-Asia School)